Software Installation Administrator's Guide
This chapter contains procedures and information for preparing yourself and
your site for software installation. You should review all of the information
in this chapter, but you do not need to perform all of the procedures
described. The procedures that you do will depend on the type of installation
that you plan and specific conditions at your site.
Preparing for Installation
The chapter contains these sections:
Selecting a Distribution Source
When selecting a distribution source, consider the speed and reliability of
your network, the frequency with which installations are performed, and the
amount of software that will be installed. If disk space is available and the
network is fast and reliable, consider creating a centralized distribution
directory on an installation server. A centralized directory is particularly
useful if users perform their own installations, or if the availability of the
server's CD-ROM drive is subject to interruption.
When you are installing software on one or two target systems and the targets
contain local CD_ROM drives, using a locally mounted distribution CD is often
the most efficient distribution source, particularly if your network is slow
and you plan to install a considerable amount of software. For any target that
is not equipped with a CD-ROM drive, the distribution source must be a remote
CD-ROM drive or distribution directory.
Setting Up an Installation Server
You can create an installation server on almost any system in your network
that is reliable and has adequate disk resources. The distribution source may
be a local CD-ROM drive or a distribution directory.
Note: Do not create an installation server on "multi-homed"
system (routers with more than one IP address). Packets sent to multi-homed
systems are not necessarily returned to the sender by the same route. This can
cause problems during miniroot installations.
Any system that you plan to use as an installation server must be accessible
from the remote targets. This means that communications between the server and
targets must support forwarding of boot files (for miniroot installations) and
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) file transfers. In addition, the
installation server must contain a user account that is available to target
The procedures in this section assume that you plan to set up a distribution
directory on an installation server. If you plan to use a remote CD-ROM drive
as the distribution source, complete all procedures in this section except
"Creating a Distribution
Enabling BOOTP Forwarding on Routers
Inst uses the Internet Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) to obtain IP addresses
during miniroot installations. For this reason, all routers between an
installation server and a remote target must allow bootp forwarding. On
factory-shipped Silicon Graphics systems, however, bootp(1M) forwarding
is disabled in the file.
Note: The inetd.conf file is stored in /usr/etc on systems
running versions of IRIX that are earlier than 5.2.
The procedure below describes how to identify routers and change the
/etc/inetd.conf file to enable bootp forwarding on them. This
procedure might not be appropriate for routers that are not Silicon Graphics
When the server is no longer needed for software installation, you can return
the /etc/inetd.conf file on the router to its original state, then give
the killall(1M) command to put the change into effect.
- Determine the names of routers.
Issue this command from the target system:
ping -R -c 1 installation_server Look for an entry that begins with RR: in ping output. It shows
the route of a packet from the target to the installation server and back.
Each node listed, except the installation server and target, is a router.
- Become the superuser on the router.
- Change the bootp line in /etc/inetd.conf on each router, as
The default bootp line in /etc/inetd.conf looks like this:
bootp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/bootp bootpAdd the f flag to enable bootp forwarding. The modified line
should look like this:
bootp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/bootp bootp -f
- Put your changes into effect:
# killall -v -HUP inetd
- Repeat steps 2 and 3 for additional routers.
Enabling TFTP Access on an Installation Server
During miniroot installations, Inst uses TFTP to transfer files from remote
systems. For this reason, any system acting as the server for miniroot
installations must allow tftp access. However, on factory-shipped
Silicon Graphics systems, tftpd(1M) access is disabled in the
This procedure explains how to change the /etc/inetd.conf to allow
Note: If your site has strict security requirements, step 2 of this
procedure offers an option that limits tftp access to the distribution
When the remote system is no longer needed for software installation, you can
return the /etc/inetd.conf file to its original state, then give the
killall(1M) command to put your changes into effect.
- Become the superuser on the installation server.
- Modify the tftp line in /etc/inetd.conf on the server.
You can modify /etc/inetd.conf to allow tftp access in a way
that suits the needs of your site. The default tftp entry in
/etc/inetd.conf looks similar to this (your entry might contain additional
arguments to the -s option):
tftp dgram udp wait guest /usr/etc/tftpd tftpd -s /usr/local/bootTake any of these actions to modify the tftp entry:
- Remove the s /usr/local/boot, and any additional directories
that are specified by the -s option, from the entry to allow tftp
access to all publicly readable directories. (This is not recommended for
sites on the Internet.) The modified line should look like this:
tftp dgram udp wait guest /usr/etc/tftpd tftpd
- Specify access to the distribution directory only (suggested for secure
sites). The modified line should look like this:
tftp dgram udp wait guest /usr/etc/tftpd tftpd -s
- Specify access to the CD-ROM drive. The modified line should look like
tftp dgram udp wait guest /usr/etc/tftpd tftpd -sNote: If an account other than guest is used for installation,
replace the guest entry on the tftp line with the alternate user
- Put your changes into effect.
# killall -v -HUP inetd
Configuring an Installation Account
During an installation, Inst defaults to using the guest account on the
server to accept a connection from the target systems; guest must not
be password protected. If the guest account on the server is either
unavailable or password protected (to limit access to the target by rsh
, for example), you must provide an alternate means for accessing the server.
You can allow access to the server in any of these ways:
- Remove the password from guest while installations are taking
- Use an account other than guest on the server (the alternate
account must not be password protected) and specify the alternate account when
you start Inst (see
"Specifying the Source on the Command Line"
for details on invoking Inst with the -f flag):
inst f alternate_user@installation_server:distdir
- Use a password-protected account on the server for installations and
create an .rhosts file for the installation account. The installation
account must have read permissions on the distribution source.
The .rhosts file that you create must contain an entry for each target
system that will access the server (see the hosts.equiv(4) reference
page for information on .rhosts). For example, assume that the
installation account on the server is instuser. The file
/usr/people/guest/.rhosts on the installation server contains these lines
to permit installations on targets called joesbox and lab1:
lab1.engr.xxx.com instuserEither of the following commands can be used to install software on joesbox
or lab1 (see
"Step 2: Specifying the Source"
"Specifying the Source on the Command Line"
for details on these commands):
Inst> from instuser@installation_server:path
# inst -f instuser@installation_server:path
Creating a Distribution Directory
Follow the procedure below to create a distribution directory on the
rinstallation server. The CD-ROM drive from which you copy the distribution
software may be either a local or remote drive. You can copy several CDs to
the distribution directory if you wish; however, do not include more than one
release of a given product in the directory - different distribution
directories must be created for different releases of a product.
- Become the superuser on the server with the CD-ROM drive.
% su -
#Note: If the distribution directory is on a different system, become the
superuser on that system also.
- Get the controller and unit numbers for the CD-ROM drive.
# hinv Look for a line like this in the output of hinv and note numbers that
appear in parentheses beside the scsi and cdrom entries:
SCSI CDROM: scsi (0) cdrom (4)
- Eject the CD that is currently in the drive, if any.
You can omit the argument from this command if there is only one CD-ROM drive
on the workstation:
# eject /dev/scsi/sccntlrdunitl0 Note: This command has a lowercase l and a zero at the end of it.
- Create the directory for the distribution.
# mkdir distdir
- Stop the CD-ROM daemon, if it is running.
Issue this command on the system with the CD-ROM drive to stop the mediad
# mediad -k
- Create a mount-point directory for the CD-ROM if none exists.
# mkdir /CDROM
- Insert the CD containing the distribution and mount it.
# mount -o ro /dev/dsk/dkscntlrdunits7 /CDROM
- Copy the distribution to the new directory.
On the system containing the distribution directory, issue the cp
command to copy the installable software from the CD to the distribution
directory. The following sample commands illustrate how to copy all
distribution software to the directory, creating the necessary subdirectories
simultaneously. Use the first command if the CD-ROM is local and the second
command if the CD-ROM is remote:
# cp -r /CDROM/dist/. distdir
# rcp -r guest@server:/CDROM/dist/. distdir You can create a software distribution directory that contains fewer products
than are in the CD-ROM distribution by copying the files for just the products
that you want. Remember that distribution directories and CD-ROM distributions
have an identical structure. For example, to copy just one product from a
local CD-ROM drive, use this command:
% cp /CDROM/dist/product* distdir/product
- Copy the release notes to the server (optional).
Issue this command to create a directory for the release notes and copy them
to the installation server:
# cp -r /CDROM/relnotes/* relnotes_dir
- Eject the distribution CD.
Issue this command on the system with the CD-ROM drive. You can omit the
argument if there is just one CD-ROM drive on the system:
# eject /dev/scsi/sccntlrdunitl0
- Repeat steps 7 through 9 for additional CDs.
- Restart the CD-ROM daemon, if you stopped it.
If you stopped mediad in step 5, restart it by issuing this command on
the system with the CD-ROM drive:
# mediad Note: If you have more than one CD-ROM drive, you might get an error
from this command, but you can safely ignore it.
Backing Up the Target Systems
Although backing up the target is not requirement for installation, it is
strongly recommended. The PersonalSystem Administration Guide
describes general backup procedures and using System Manager to perform
backups. Other programs you can use to make backups are backup(1),
bru(1), cpio(1), and tar(1). See the reference pages for
these programs for more information.
Consider backing up these files:
Planning the Order of Installation
Inst automatically manages the installation order of the products on a single
CD or in one distribution directory. However, if you expect to install
software from more than one CD or distribution directory, you must plan the
installation order, since some products require that other products be
If you are installing from multiple CDs, use the sequence numbers on their
labels to put the CDs in order. Install the CDs starting with the lowest
sequence number first. Use these guidelines to plan the order of your
If you are installing from several distribution directories, check to see what
products are in each directory. Plan to install the products in this order:
For miniroot installations, be sure that the first CD or distribution
directory that you install contains installation tools. CDs containing
installation tools are clearly marked.
If any CD has two sequence numbers, that CD is used twice during the
installation. If you find no intervening sequence numbers, you need to insert
the CD only once during the installation.
If you have two or more CDs with the same sequence number, the order of those
CDs relative to each other does not matter. For example, assume that you have
four CDs with sequence numbers 400, 500, 600, and 600. The CD labeled 400 is
installed first, followed by the CD labeled 500. The order of the two CDs
labeled 600 is irrelevant, as long as they are installed last.
Installation tools (for miniroot installations)
Operating system software
Collecting the Information That You Need
When you install software from a remote distribution source, you are required
to supply information about the installation server and target. If your
distribution source is a local CD-ROM drive, you may have to supply the
controller and unit number of the drive. Jot down the information that you get
as you complete these instructions and have it available when you start the
Getting CD-ROM Device Numbers
If you are planning a miniroot installation from the local CD-ROM drive on the
target, you must be prepared to specify the controller and unit number of the
drive during the installation. Use this command to determine the controller
and unit number:
# hinv Look for a line like the one below in the output of hinv. The numbers
that you need appear in parentheses beside the scsi and cdrom
SCSI CDROM: scsi (0) cdrom (4)In the previous example, the controller number is 0 and the unit number
Getting the Target's Name and Address
The name and address of the target system are required for miniroot
installations when the distribution source is on a remote installation server.
Issue the hostname command from the target system to get its name:
% hostname Issue the ping command from the target to get its Internet Protocol (IP)
address. Use the output of the hostname command as an argument to
% /usr/etc/ping -c 1 target_name
Getting the Server's Name and Address
The name of the remote installation server is specified to identify the
distribution source in miniroot and live installations. If you are already on
the installation server, issue the hostname command to get its name:
% hostname If you are on the target system, issue this ping command to get the
Internet Protocol (IP) address of the installation server:
% /usr/etc/ping -c 1 installation_server
PING server (IPaddress): 2048 data bytes
----server PING Statistics----
100 packets transmitted, 100 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip (ms) min/avg/max = 0/2/7Note the numbers in the IPaddress field of the output. If ping
output is not similar to this example, the network connection might be
faulty. You should resolve the problem before continuing with your
Appendix A, "Installation Troubleshooting"
Getting the Installation Account Name
By default, Inst uses the guest account on the installation server for
installations. If you plan to use an account other than guest, be
prepared to specify the name of the alternate account (see
"Configuring an Installation Account"
Preparing the Remote CD-ROM Drive
You can use a utility called cdinstmgr to manage the mounting and
unmounting of CDs on a remote CD-ROM drive during installations. This utility
prevents other users from ejecting distribution CDs during an installation and
informs you of error conditions. You must start cdinstmgr before you
begin the installation.
Use this procedure to start cdinstmgr:
Become root and issue the cdinstmgr command on the installation server.
Respond to cdinstmgr prompts.
Follow cdinstmgr directions as it prompts for the name of the target
and guides you through the mechanics of loading the first CD. Be sure to
insert CDs with the label up. If mediad(1M) is not already running on
the installation server, cdinstmgr prompts you for the superuser
password to the server.
Note the mount directory for the CD-ROM drive.
When you see the message below, note the value of CDdir,the mount point
directory; you will need it later.
CD on CDdir for host hostame: type the word "done" when you are finished with this CD, "quit" if you are completely done:You will respond to this prompt after you have finished using this CD.
Verify that the target can access the distribution source.
Issue this command from the target to verify that it has access to the
% rsh server -l user 'ls CDdir/dist' If the output to this command is a list of products contained on the
distribution CD, the target has access to the distribution CD. If the output
is an error message, you should diagnose and correct the error before
beginning the installation.
Determining the Installation Method
Software products containing subsystems that require a miniroot installation
cannot be installed by a live installation (see
"Software Installation Methods"
). To install these subsystems, you must shut down the target system and
install them from the miniroot. To determine whether the software that you
plan to install requires a miniroot installation, read the product release
notes. Release notes list all subsystems in the product that require miniroot
If you determine that a miniroot installation is required, complete the
Chapter 3, "Starting a Miniroot Installation"
Chapter 5, "Using Inst"
to perform the installation (the procedures in
are not used during a miniroot installation).
If you determine that a live installation is suitable, complete the procedures
Chapter 4, "Starting a Live Installation"
Chapter 5, "Using Inst"
to perform the installation (the procedures in
are not used during a live installation).
to Technical Publications.
Copyright © 1997,
Silicon Graphics, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.