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IRIX Advanced Site and Server Administration Guide


Chapter 11
Administering the CADMIN Object System

This chapter describes the administration of the cadmin object system. This object system provides utilities for system administration in the Indigo Magic user environment, which is available only on graphics workstations. If you do not have a graphics workstation, or if you do not have this environment enabled on your workstation, you cannot use this system.

The cadmin object system should be considered distinct from the cadmin tools it supports. Your primary resource for using the cadmin system administration tools is the Personal System Administration Guide. This chapter describes only the administration that can be performed on the cadmin software itself, not the use of the cadmin software to administer your system. Information about the cadmin system is also available in the release notes that came with your system (or your most recent system software upgrade) and through the desktop help utilities on your system.

Topics covered in this chapter include:


The cadmin Object System

The cadmin system has been designed to provide useful system administration tools to the majority of system administrators using IRIX. The cadmin object system is a collection of daemon programs, which run in the background and provide software services to the tool utilities that the user sees. The cadmin object system includes the following major parts:

The Objectserver

The objectserver daemon handles requests for system resources such as disk drives, tape drives, and user accounts. The objectserver also modifies system files in response to adminstrator requests, such as for adding new users. See the objectserver(1M) reference page for complete information.

The Directoryserver

The directoryserver daemon maintains a database of all the managed objects (such as disks, tape drives, and CD drives) for all systems running an objectserver on the network. See the directoryserver(1M) reference page for complete information.

The File Manager

The graphical interface to the file system is an alternative to the IRIX shell for running applications and organizing information. It is similar to the WorkSpace(1G) application of past IRIX releases. For complete information, see the fm(1G) reference page.

The Desks Overview

The desks overview provides controls for manipulating IndigoMagic environment ``desks.'' The overview is completely described in the ov(1X) reference page and can create, change, copy, rename, and delete desks. Windows can also be dragged from one desk to another or placed on the global desk.

The Background Daemon

The Background Daemon (described in the bgdaemon(1X) reference page) manages the screen background. It switches backgrounds automatically when the user switches desks, and it communicates to the file manager when icons are on the background, so the file manager can maintain the background.

The Media Daemon

The Media Daemon (described in the mediad(1M) reference page) monitors the removable media devices on a system. When a CD or floppy disk is inserted, mediad mounts it as a file system, if possible. Some CDs (such as audio disks), and some floppies (for example, tar(1) floppies) are not mountable. When a user issues the eject command, eject sends mediad a message which causes it to attempt to unmount the media and eject it.

The Soundscheme Audio Server

The audio cue server daemon (described in the soundscheme(1) reference page) provides high-level audio playback services for user applications. Based on the audio and audiofile libraries, soundscheme mixes and plays sounds on demand as requested by multiple client programs using a single audio port.


Starting the cadmin Daemons

The following list describes how each daemon in the cadmin object system is started. By default, all these daemons are started at boot time. If you have the cadmin system installed on your machine, you should not need to start these daemons manually. This information is provided in the event that someone has turned these daemons off or the software is not working properly.

objectserver

The bootup script /etc/init.d/cadmin checks the value of the objectserver variable with the chkconfig command at boot time. Use the chkconfig(1M) command if you need to check that this daemon is running or make a change to its status at the next boot.

To change the status of this daemon while the system is running, use the command script:
/etc/init.d/cadmin [ start | stop ]
directoryserver

The bootup script /etc/init.d/cadmin also checks the value of the directoryserver variable with chkconfig at boot time. Use the chkconfig(1M) command if you need to check that this daemon is running or make a change to its status at the next boot.

To change the status of this daemon while the system is running, use the command script:
/etc/init.d/cadmin [ start | stop ]
fm

The File Manager is started by default on most systems. The existence of a file named .desktop or .nodesktop in a user's home directory causes the daemon to abort. If the File Manager is not running, it can easily be invoked by choosing the Desktop and then the Home Directory items from the Toolchest on your screen.

ov

The Desktop Overview is controlled by the user through the Toolchest. Select the Desktop item on your toolchest and then the Desks Overview item.

bgdaemon

The /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession.dt file sets the background daemon to be started at boot time. This can be prevented only by commenting out the appropriate line in the Xsession.dt file.

mediad

The bootup script /etc/init.d/mediad checks the value of the mediad variable with chkconfig(1M) at boot time or whenever the mediad script is invoked as a direct command. Use the chkconfig(1M) command if you need to check that this daemon is running or make a change to its status at the next boot.

To change the status of this daemon while the system is running, use the command script:
/etc/init.d/mediad [ start | stop ]
soundscheme

The /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession.dt file checks the value of the soundscheme variable with chkconfig at boot time. Use the chkconfig(1M) command if you need to check that this daemon is running or make a change to its status at the next boot.


Stopping the cadmin Daemons

From time to time, you may need to disable some parts of the cadmin object system. For example, to test new audio software, you may need to turn off the soundscheme daemon temporarily. The following sections describe how to disable the elements of the cadmin system safely, so that they can be easily restarted when necessary.

Stopping the Objectserver

To stop the objectserver, log in as root and issue the command:

/etc/init.d/cadmin stop 

This stops the objectserver until you use the same script to restart the daemon with the start command.

If the objectserver daemons are not running, much of the administrative functionality is lost:

System Manager


The System Manager tool will not start up. If you select the System Manager, you see a message from the chost tool saying ``Cannot communicate with <hostname>. Perhaps there is no objectserver available on this system.''

User Manager

The User Manager also does not start up. When you first select the User Manager, it appears to be working correctly in that you see the message ``Looking up user accounts. Please wait.'' However, after some time a message appears from the cpeople tool saying ``The network did not respond correctly. Please try again. If it still does not respond, see the section on Troubleshooting Network Errors in the online Personal System Administration Guide.''

Monitor Disk Space


Monitor Disk Space does not work without the objectserver. If you attempt to select this service, the cfile tool gives this error message: ``The network did not respond correctly. Please try again. If it still does not respond, see the section on Troubleshooting Network Errors in the Online Personal System Administration Guide.''

These tools will work again if you restart the objectserver with the chkconfig command and a reboot or the command:

/etc/init.d/cadmin start 

Stopping the Directory Server

The most convenient way to stop the directoryserver is to log in as root and issue the command:

/etc/init.d/cadmin stop 

This directs the system not to run the directoryserver daemon. If you do not run this daemon, some of the system administration tools will fail because they will not be able to collect information from remote systems.

These tools will work again if you restart the directoryserver with the chkconfig command and a reboot or the command:

/etc/init.d/cadmin start 

Stopping the File Manager

If you wish to stop the File Manager (fm) daemon from running, give the command:

touch $HOME/.desktop 

When you next log in, the File Manager will not start up automatically. Note though, that the File Manager can be started up at any time by choosing the Desktop item and then the Home Directory item from the System Toolchest menu.

As the administrator, you can remove the Home Directory item from the System Toolchest by removing the relevant entry from the default /usr/lib/X11/system.chestrc file. However, any user can make a custom .chestrc file in their home directory and reinclude the option.

When the File Manager is not running, no icons appear on the main background window. You cannot drag icons from another location, such as the Icon Catalog, onto the main background. You do not have iconic access to system or network peripherals. For many users, the biggest repercussion of not running the File Manager is that there is no graphical access to the directory structure, especially the user's home directory.

Stopping the Desks Overview

To stop the Desks Overview daemon, log in as root and issue the command:

killall ov 

This kills the current instance of the Desks Overview. If the desktop updating mode (which is set in the Desktop Toolchest, Customize submenu, Windows item) is set to explicit, be sure to click on the Set Home Session button. This prevents the Desktop Overview from starting up when the user next logs in. Note that the Desks Overview can always be started by choosing Desks Overview from the Desktop Toolchest. The choice can be removed from the default /usr/lib/X11/system.chestrc file if you choose, but any user can make a custom .chestrc file in their home directory and reinclude the option.

If the Desks Overview is not running, users can not switch between their desktops. The desktops are not removed, they are merely inaccessible.

Stopping the Background Daemon

The Background daemon is controlled by the /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession.dt file. If you move this file to another name, or comment out the individual line within the file that invokes the daemon, the daemon will not be started. For an example of moving the file, change directories to /usr/lib/X11/xdm and use the command:

mv Xsession.dt Xsession.dt.orig 

When you are ready to have the daemon started again, move the file back to its original name.

To restrict the daemon without losing all the instructions in the /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession.dt script file, you must edit the file. The relevant sections of the file look something like this:

# # BEGIN Desktop MODIFICATIONS # #
/usr/lib/desktop/bgdaemon &

To make any part of this file a comment, place a crosshatch (#) at the beginning of each line you wish to be a comment. A comment line is not interpreted as part of the command sequence in a script. It is assumed to be there to explain the command sequence to a reader. If you place a crosshatch in front of the line that invokes the Background daemon, the line looks like this:

# /usr/lib/desktop/bgdaemon & 

When you next log in or reboot the system, the Background daemon will not be invoked. To regain the Background daemon, edit the file again and remove the comment mark. Then when you next log in or reboot the system, you will have your background daemon again.

Never delete lines from scripts such as these, as there is no convenient way to retrieve the line when it is needed. Use commenting to change the action of the script if you desire to restrict part of the script, or move the file to a different name if you wish to bypass the entire script.

When the Background daemon isn't running, several utilities are unavailable. Most noticeably, none of the specialized IndigoMagic backgrounds are available on the desktops. These backgrounds can still be invoked with the ipaste(1) or xsetroot(1) commands. However, a background brought up this way applies to all desktops.

Since this daemon also controls management of icons on the main screen background, icon functionality is also lost when this daemon is inactive. For example, users cannot drag an icon from a directory view to the main background and users do not see an icon on the main background when a file is created the user's home directory.

Stopping the Media Daemon

To stop the media daemon (mediad), log in as root and issue the command:

/etc/init.d/mediad off 

This stops the media daemon until you use the same script with the start command to restart it.

If mediad is not running, the user must mount all removable media themselves. This would have a major impact on users who are not familiar with the mount process for CD ROM disks and floppies. Another problem is that there is no indication on the icon for the media drive to indicate what type of media is in the peripheral device. For instance, if mediad is running and there is an audio CD in the CD-ROM drive (and cdman is not running), there will be musical notes above and to the left of the CD-ROM icon.

Stopping the Soundscheme Daemon

The most convenient way to stop the Soundscheme Audio Server is to log in as root and issue the command:

killall /usr/sbin/soundscheme 

To eliminate the Soundscheme Server when you next reboot, use the command:

chkconfig soundscheme off 

This directs the system not to run the soundscheme daemon. You can also stop the soundscheme daemon by editing the Xsession.dt file as described for the Background daemon.

If you disable the soundscheme daemon, the user will get no audio cues when events take place on their systems. For instance, saving a new file does not result in a ``beep'' and moving an icon on the background is not accompanied by a ``cymbal swish'' sound. When running the full IndigoMagic environment, this is equivalent to deselecting ``Audio Feedback'' from the Toolchest.


Troubleshooting the cadmin Object System

Troubleshooting the Objectserver

The objectserver may require occasional troubleshooting, especially if new scripts and tools have added to the standard configuration. Suppose you see the following error message:

Can't contact objectserver

There are several steps you can take to restore the system to correct operation. Follow these steps in order:

Log into the system as root.

    Make sure that two objectserver daemons are running. In a shell window, enter the command:

    ps -ef | grep objectserver 

    You should see three lines of information. At the far right of these columns, you should see the following words:

    /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver
    /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver
    grep objectserver

    The last item is the grep command you just entered, and there should be two separate instances of the objectserver.

    If you see no occurrences or only one occurrence of the objectserver, check to see if the objectserver configuration flag is on. In a shell window, enter the command:

    chkconfig | grep objectserver 

    You should see the line:

    objectserver on

    Suppose the response that you see is:

    objectserver off

    Then you must turn on the objectserver by entering the command:

    chkconfig objectserver on 

    Then cycle the cadmin init script by issuing the commands:

    /etc/init.d/cadmin stop 
    /etc/init.d/cadmin start 

    Wait approximately 60 seconds and then reissue the command:

     ps -ef | grep objectserver 

    Check the output to see that both objectserver daemons are running. If both required instances of the objectserver are running, the error message should no longer appear. If you see the message again, go on to the next step.

    If two instances of the objectserver are running, but you still see the message:

    Can't contact objectserver

    The objectserver database may be corrupted. You must stop the objectserver daemons, repair the database and then start the objectserver daemons again with the following commands:

    /etc/init.d/cadmin stop 
    /etc/init.d/cadmin clean 
    /etc/init.d/cadmin start 

Troubleshooting the Directoryserver

If you are attempting to place an icon on your desktop from a remote system on your network and you receive an error message from the directoryserver, check the system with the following steps.

    Log into the system as root.

    Make sure that the directoryserver is running. In a shell window, enter the command:

    ps -ef | grep directoryserver 

    You should see two lines of information. At the far right of these columns, you should see the following words:

    /usr/Cadmin/bin/directoryserver
    grep directoryserver

    The second item is the grep command you just entered, and the other is the directoryserver.

    If you see no indication of the directoryserver, check to see if the directoryserver configuration flag is on. In a shell window, enter the command:

    chkconfig | grep directoryserver 

    You should see the following line:

    directoryserver on

    Suppose the response that you see is:

    directoryserver off

    Then you must turn on the objectserver by entering the command:

    chkconfig directoryserver on 

    Then cycle the cadmin init script by issuing the commands:

    /etc/init.d/cadmin stop 
    /etc/init.d/cadmin start 

    Now wait approximately 60 seconds and then reissue the command:

     ps -ef | grep directoryserver 

    Check the output to see that the directoryserver is running. If it is, the error message should no longer appear. If you see the message again, go on to the next step.

    If the directoryserver is running but you still see the error message, then check the directoryserver on the remote system with the resource you are trying to use.


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